SAVE COPIES OF YOUR OUTGOING MAIL! Like any other piece of software (and information generally), the qmail system comes with NO WARRANTY. It's much more secure and reliable than sendmail, but that's not saying much. Things you have to decide before starting: * The qmail home directory, normally /var/qmail. To change this directory, edit conf-qmail now. * The names of the qmail users and the qmail groups. To change these names, edit conf-users and conf-groups now. Installation steps that won't interfere with sendmail: 1. Create the qmail home directory: # mkdir /var/qmail 2. Read INSTALL.ids. You must set up the qmail group and the qmail users before compiling the programs. 3. Compile the programs: # make 4. Create the formatted man pages, *.0: # make man 5. Create the qmail directory tree: # make setup 6. Run instcheck to make sure it doesn't print any warnings: # make check 7. Read INSTALL.ctl and FAQ. Minimal survival command: # ./qmail-config 8. Read INSTALL.alias. Minimal survival command: # (cd ~alias; touch .qmail-postmaster .qmail-mailer-daemon .qmail-root) # chmod 644 ~alias/.qmail* 9. Read INSTALL.mbox. 10. Read qmail-upgrade.0. This is what your users will need to know about the switch from sendmail to qmail. Pre-upgrade tests: 11. Enable deliveries of messages injected into qmail: # env - PATH="/var/qmail/bin:$PATH" \ qmail-start ./Mailbox splogger qmail & Make sure to include the ./ in ./Mailbox. 12. Look for a qmail: running line in syslog. qmail-send always prints either ``cannot start'' or ``running''. (The big number is a splogger timestamp.) 13. Do a ps and look for the qmail daemons. There should be four of them, all idle: qmail-send, running as qmails; qmail-lspawn, running as root; qmail-rspawn, running as qmailr; and qmail-clean, running as qmailq. You will also see the splogger process. 14. Local-local test: Send yourself an empty message. (Replace ``me'' with your username. Make sure to include the ``to:'' colon.) % echo to: me | /var/qmail/bin/qmail-inject The message will show up immediately in ~/Mailbox, and syslog will show something like this: qmail: new msg 53 qmail: info msg 53: bytes 246 from <me@domain> qp 20345 uid 666 qmail: starting delivery 1: msg 53 to local me@domain qmail: delivery 1: success: did_1+0+0/ qmail: end msg 53 (53 is an inode number; 20345 is a process ID; your numbers will probably be different.) 15. Local-error test: Send a message to a nonexistent local address. % echo to: nonexistent | /var/qmail/bin/qmail-inject qmail: new msg 53 qmail: info msg 53: bytes 246 from <me@domain> qp 20351 uid 666 qmail: starting delivery 2: msg 53 to local nonexistent@domain qmail: delivery 2: failure: No_such_address.__#5.1.1_/ qmail: bounce msg 53 qp 20357 qmail: end msg 53 qmail: new msg 54 qmail: info msg 54: bytes 743 from <> qp 20357 uid 666 qmail: starting delivery 3: msg 54 to local me@domain qmail: delivery 3: success: did_1+0+0/ qmail: end msg 54 You will now have a bounce message in ~/Mailbox. 16. Local-remote test: Send an empty message to your account on another machine. % echo to: me@wherever | /var/qmail/bin/qmail-inject qmail: new msg 53 qmail: info msg 53: bytes 246 from <me@domain> qp 20372 uid 666 qmail: starting delivery 4: msg 53 to remote me@wherever qmail: delivery 4: success: 126.96.36.199_accepted_message./... qmail: end msg 53 There will be a pause between ``starting delivery'' and ``success''; SMTP is slow. Check that the message is in your mailbox on the other machine. 17. Local-postmaster test: Send mail to postmaster, any capitalization. % echo to: POSTmaster | /var/qmail/bin/qmail-inject Look for the message in ~alias/Mailbox. 18. Double-bounce test: Send a message with a completely bad envelope. % /var/qmail/bin/qmail-inject -f nonexistent To: unknownuser Subject: testing This is a test. This is only a test. % (Use end-of-file, not dot, to end the message.) Look for the double bounce in ~alias/Mailbox. 19. Group membership test: % cat > ~me/.qmail-groups |groups >> MYGROUPS; exit 0 % /var/qmail/bin/qmail-inject me-groups < /dev/null % cat ~me/MYGROUPS MYGROUPS will show your normal gid and nothing else. (Under Solaris, make sure to use /usr/ucb/groups; /usr/bin/groups is broken.) Upgrading from sendmail to qmail: 20. Read INSTALL.boot. You must replace the sendmail invocation in your boot scripts with an appropriate qmail invocation. 21. Kill the sendmail daemon. You should first kill -STOP the daemon; if any children are running, you should kill -CONT, wait, kill -STOP again, and repeat ad nauseam. If there aren't any children, kill -TERM and then kill -CONT. 22. Replace sendmail with a link to qmail's ``sendmail'' wrapper: # mv /usr/lib/sendmail /usr/lib/sendmail.bak # ln -s /var/qmail/bin/sendmail /usr/lib/sendmail 23. Set up qmail-smtpd in /etc/inetd.conf (all on one line): smtp stream tcp nowait qmaild /var/qmail/bin/tcp-env tcp-env /var/qmail/bin/qmail-smtpd Also comment out comsat in /etc/inetd.conf. 24. Reboot. (Or kill -HUP your inetd and make sure the qmail daemons are running.) 25. Try to flush the sendmail queue: # /usr/lib/sendmail.bak -q You can safely run sendmail.bak -q (or even sendmail.bak -q15m) while qmail is running. Do this until the sendmail queue is empty. This may take several days. 26. Disable all the sendmail and binmail programs in your system. The safest approach is to chmod 0 everything. Some locations to check: /usr/sbin/sendmail, /usr/lib/sendmail.bak, /usr/lib/sendmail.mx, /bin/mail, /usr/libexec/mail.local. 27. Make sure that ``mail'' still invokes a reasonable mailer. Under SVR4 you may want to link mail to mailx. Post-upgrade tests (can be done immediately after step 24): 28. SMTP server test: Forge some mail locally via SMTP. % telnet 127.0.0.1 25 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to 127.0.0.1. Escape character is '^]'. 220 domain ESMTP helo dude 250-domain 250-PIPELINING 250 8BITMIME mail <me@domain> 250 ok rcpt <me@domain> 250 ok data 354 go ahead Subject: testing This is a test. . 250 ok 812345679 qp 12345 quit 221 domain Connection closed by foreign host. % Look for the message in your mailbox. 29. Remote-local test: Send yourself some mail from another machine. 30. Remote-error test: I think you can figure this one out. 31. UA test: Try sending mail, first to a local account, then to a remote account, with your normal user agent. 32. Remote-postmaster test: Send mail from another machine to PoStMaStEr@domain. Look for the message in ~alias/Mailbox. That's it! To report success: % ( echo 'First M. Last'; cat `cat SYSDEPS` ) \ | mail firstname.lastname@example.org Replace First M. Last with your name. If you have questions about qmail, contact email@example.com.